Quake That Shook The Army’s Adobe

The army established Fort Tejon, California, in 1854. In January of 1857, the post was struck by a series of powerful earthquakes. These quakes were, possibly, the worst earthquakes to take place in California in the past 200 years. Inspector General Edward Mansfield noted in his 1859 inspection report that the post, built almost entirely out of adobe bricks “is particularly exposed to earthquakes , and every building is cracked by them; and on one occasion the gabled ends of two buildings were thrown down by earthquakes: in a few miles off, I saw an immense crack and crevice in the earth extending for many miles, caused recently by them.”

Lt Col. Benjamin L. Beall commanded the regiment and post. He was sound asleep when the quake struck and awoke to find his bedroom wall to have fallen away from the building. That evening he issued this preliminary report to headquaters.

Continue reading “Quake That Shook The Army’s Adobe”

Inspection Report and Muster Roll, Ft. Tejon 28 February 1859

Joseph Mansfield’s Inspection Report of Fort Tejon

Los Angeles, California

5 March 1859

Bvt. Major Irwin W. McDowell,

Asst. Adjt. Genl. – Head Quarters Army

Sir:

On the 18th February ulto., I left San Francisco, in the Overland mail coach, for Fort Tejon,  and reached there at daybreak of the 21st ulto. , and have now the honor to report to the General – in –Chief the result of my inspection of that post as follows.

Fort Tejon, from 21 Feb. to 3rd March:  The establishment of a Military post at the Tejon reservation,  so-called, was designated in 1854, at the time I made an inspection of this Department;  and General  Wool, then in command of the Department, desired me in connection with the Indian agent at that time E.F. Beale, an Assistant Quarter Master Captain Gordon, to select a suitable site for the same and we fixed on a site some 20 miles from this post, in the Valley near the Indian reservation; which was deemed a strategic, as well as a pleasant, and comfortable, and suitable, place.  At that time I could see no valid objection to it, and I have since my arrival at Tejon, visited again, and am of the same opinion still, and I believe it a much more suitable position than the present site.  The road through the canyon is better and nearer to Los Angeles.  Why it was not adopted as originally selected, I cannot say.

This post is situated in the Paso de Las Uvas, in latitude 34 -54’-40” and longitude 118-54’-01”, about six miles from the outlet into the Tulare or San Joaquin Valley, and about 2500 feet in vertical altitude above that Valley; and in consequence, is a cold, and damp, and unpleasant climate through the whole fall, winter and spring; and on the 1st and 2nd of this month, the ground was white with snow and ice, while in the reservation, the peach trees are in bloom and peas up.

There is no garden here, and no grazing of consequence for animals short of five miles.  There is, however, a good spring of water, and abundant oak for fuel.  It is particularly exposed to earthquakes , and every building is cracked by them; and on one occasion the gabled ends of two buildings were thrown down by earthquakes: in a few miles off, I saw an immense crack and crevice in the earth extending for many miles, caused recently by them.  Since the 1st November 1856 to the close of January 1st there have been many shocks.  In November 1856 three, –  in 1857  there were in January three severe shocks on the 8th, 20th, and 29th and many light every day from the 9th to the close of the month.   – February many shocks through the month, the hardest on the 10th, 11th and 28th. – March  27 shocks and one very severe on the 3rd. – April 22 shocks and one very severe on the 23rd. –  May 7th shocks very severe on the 15th, 19th, 20th and 26th. – June 11 shocks, one very severe on the 12th, and severe on the 2nd, 10th and 11th – July 18 shocks eight very severe. – August 12 shocks, two very severe on the 9th and 20th, two severe and eight slight.  – September1 heavy on the 22nd and slight. – September 1 heavy on the 22nd and 5 slight. – October 6 shocks, two of them heavy. – November 11 shocks, two heavy on the 20th and 30th and nine light. – December 5 shocks, one heavy on the 12th, and one extremely heavy on the 23rd.  In 1858, there were in January, three shocks, one severe on the 17th and slight on the 21st and 26th. – February 2 shocks, one heavy on the 2nd and one slight on the 8th. – March 4 shocks,  one heavy, on the 29th , and two slight on the 27th, and one on the 28th. – April 3 shocks, two heavy on the 3rd and six and one slight on the 5th. – May 3 shocks, one heavy, on the 19th, and two slight on the 20th and 27th and one on the 2nd. – June 2 shocks, one extremely heavy on the 15th, and one slight on the 14th. – July 2 shocks, one very heavy on the 21st. – August 3 shocks, two heavy on the 13th and one slight on the 8th. – September 4 shocks. – October 1 on the 6th. – November none. – December 1 tremendous one on the 19t. In 1859 in January one shock on the 22nd. – February, one shock on the 12th.  Thus showing the earthquakes to be continuous.  One person has been killed by the fall of an adobe building, and a cow has been swallowed up.

Th order e post is 374 miles from San Francisco, and 100 miles from Los Angeles, and all of its supplies are received through that place having first been landed at San Pedro, and transported 25 miles by land.  Thus 382 miles from Fort Yuma via Los Angeles, Temecula and Cariso Creek.

I think its site is unfortunately selected.  It should have been either north of this Canon de Las Uvas.  Yet it has ample drill grounds, and there has been much expenditure here in the construction of quarters that it seems now too late to change the location.

Quarters of the Troops &c

The plan hereunto appended, shows 5 buildings for offices; two for soldiers of the two Companies; one for Adjutant’s Office and Band; one for Hospital and Commissary; two for Quartermaster’s Offices, stores, and workshops;  and two supernumary buildings unfinished, all of adobe and shingled and ample.  In addition, two wooden buildings for guard and prison; four for stables, granary &c and a suttler store.  There seems to be no necessity for any more buildings for the present. If new stables be built on the spot indicated they should be frame buildings.

1st Regt. Dragoons and Command.

This is the headquarters of the 1sr Dragoons, and the regiment as well as the post,  inas been since the 21st of January, under the command of Lt. Col. B. L. Beall, who was absent temporarily at Los Angeles on my arrival in the morning of the 21st ulto. And did not return until the evening of the 23d. 1st Liet C. W. Ogle is adjutant of the regiment, as 1st Lieut. M.B. Davidson the Regimental Quaretrmaster, as well as Quartermaster and Commissary of the Post. Thw Sergeant Major of the Regiment is absent on furlough since 1st Dec. 1858. The Regimental Band is made up of 10 musicians of which one was in confinement, on on furlough and 3 sich.

Col. T.T. Fauntleroy absent on sick lave since the 21st October 1857, and extended to 1st May, next. Major Steen absent sick since the 17th May 1858. Major G.A. H. Blake on leave since the 17 January 1859 for 60 days. Capt. L, B. Northrup absent from the Regiment sick since 6th October 1839, over 19 years, and as I understand practicing physic in Charleston, S. Ca. and I wish to call attention of the General-in-Chief particularly to this matter: it is an injustice to the Army however pleasant it may be to Capt. Norhrop. There is provision made for the discharge, an pension to disabled soldiers; and a like provision should be made for a disabled officer. 2d Lieut G. F. Evans has been sick since the 30th October 1850, over eight years. Capt. T. W. Whittlesey absent sick since 21st August 1856,over 2 ½ years. – A retired list is indispensible, in order that there may be efficiency in the service, and those who perform the duty have the benefit of protection,

The Sergeant Major is the Clerk in the Adjutant’s Office, and the Regimental Books are neatly and well kept; and he is an efficient officer. Lieut Ogle is the recruiting officer, and has on hand 73 dolls on this account. He is also the Treasurer of the Regiment and has in his hands a Regimental fund of 353.97 dolls. The Regiment has also quite a Library of Books boxed up, not yet opened. The Companies of the Regiment are distributed as follows: K & B at this post; A & F at Fort Crook; C.E.I. H at Walla Walla; and D & G at Fort Buchanan. Lieut Col B. L. Beall altho’ in command of this Regt. and of this post, likewise has not recovered fromhis hurts, and is not in my opinion able to take the field, but can command here, at headquarters of the Regiment.

Strength of Command

In addition to the foregoing officers there are here on duty, Assist Surgeon P.G..S. TenBroeck since the 2d of January 1855, and he has been in the department since May 1854; and is an efficient officer, but has had the misfortune since my arrival here to dislocate his right shoulder by turning over his carriage down a precipice of the Canon. An ordnance sergeant who has been absent since the 24 January 1859.

The post ordnance was in a state of good preservation. It is mostly stored on the left over the Company store[room?]. There were two 12 lb mountain howitzers in serviceable order, with 17 fixed shells, 24 spherical case, 136 blank cartridges, 600 friction matches and 11 slow matches therefore.  Also 3000 blank revolver and 4000 blank musket cartridges; 4400 Musketoon and 2000 rifle and 15000 Sharps carbine and 3000 horse pistol and 1500 revolver ball cartridges. 26500 Sharps primers.

Capt. and Bvt. Major J. H. Carleton, Company K, 1st Dragoons, stationed here since 7 July 1858; 1st Lieut D. H. Hastings absent on sick leave at Carlisle, Penn, since the 12rh April last; 2d Liet A. B. Chapman on detached service to Los Angeles since the 16th February, and returned to the post again on the 28th.  A vacancy has occurred which will promote Lieut Chapman out of this company, and then it will be without a Lieutenant, as there is no prospect of Lieut Hastings return to the Company, a brevet 2d Lieut. should be attached to this Company, without delay, in order that 3 0officers to meet the demands of the service against Indians on the Mohave, and elsewhere. When I inspected this Company at Fort Union in 1q853, it was, as it will be soon, without subalterns; 4 sergeants, 2 corporals, 2 musicians, 1 farrier and 46 privates, of which 1 sick, 5 confined, 20 on extra duty. 52 horses.

This company is armed with the sabre, Sharps carbine, Colts belt pistol. In was in uniform except the cap of the old pattern, and was neat on inspection, and the arms in order, and the men appeared well. There was a deficiency of clothing of all kinds at the post; they were in want of drawers, socks, boots, shoes, caps, stable frocks, and the blue blouse. The horses were tolerable, and the horse equipments, generally worn out. There was a deficiency of horse shoes, except a few at the post of a large size suitable for Pennsylvania wagon horses. The Company is well quartered in a good adoby building shingled, with a good mess room. It had a library, and a very excellent set of mess furniture of Britannia ware; and a large company fund of 1177.79 doll. in cash. The Company ordnance and property is in a good state of preservation. Pertaining to this company are 85 Sharps carbines, 60 Colts belt pistols, 85 sabres, 5900 Sharps ball cartridges, 2400 Colts pistol ball cartridges, 2206 large caps, 1470 small caps, 4500 Sharps caps               . It had no valises, and but 12 serviceable canteens. The books are properly kept, and written up. There were 6 desertions in 1856—6 in 1857—16 in 1858. One laundress. It has an excellent orderly sergeant, and is in good discipline, was were commanded by Major Carleton, who has done much, and has a large amount of useful property for the men. At the time he took the Company of Col. Cooke in 1848, there was no Company fund, and now is probably the richest in the service. The Company bake their own bread, and as there is no garden here, consume all the flour.

I condemned to be dropped of this Company a large number of saddles, bridles, halters, camp equipage,                   . Those that might be of service in the Quartermasters Department I ordered turn in           , without receipt therefore.

Company B, 1st Dragoons, Capt. J.W. Davidson stationed here since July 1858; no 1st Lieutenant; 2d Lieut G. Davis.—4 serhgeants, 4 corporals, no musicians, 1 farrier, 48 privates of which 3 sick, 7 confined, 16 in extraa duty. –57 horses.

This Company is armed with the [M1833] sabre, Sharps carbine, Colts belt pistol. It was in uniform except for the cap of the old pattern. No sword knots—was neat on inspection, and appeared with arms in order. There was a deficiency of clothing of all kinds as stated for Company K—some had no stocks on. The Company is quartered in a good adoby building, shingled; but the mess, room and kitchen, not yet worked in; yet designed to match that of Company K; and a temporary one in use. There were no bunks yet made.

The Company ordnance and property were stored. At date there was no long forage on hand, and for the last 7 months they have had but half long forage; and the horses are daily herded on the scanty grass in the neighborhood within 8 miles. Pertaining to this there were 61 Sharps carbines, 1 Rifle, 57 Colts pistols, 85 sabres, 2570 Carbine ball cartridges, 3000 Sharps primers all serviceable.

I condemned to be turned in to the Arsenel at Benecia 6 Carbines and 2 Colts pistols and to be dropped a large number of saddles, bridles, valises       , and such saddles and bridles as might be of service to the Quartermaster’s department; ordered to be turned in to that Department, without receipt therefrom.

Stables and Forage

The horses of both companies were kept in temporary stables as indicated on the plan of fort Tejon hereunto appended. At date there was no long forage on hand, and for the last 7 months they have had but half long forage; and the horses are daily herded on the scanty grass in the neighborhood within 8 miles. Barley is had in abundance. If this post had been placed as originally selected, the horses could graze the whole winter in the Tulare Valley. Attached to the stables is a small granary and saddle horses and a smith’s shop. New stables of adobies have been commenced near the soldiers’ quarters; but suspended in consequence of the discharge of the civilian employees. These stables should not be erected of adobes. They should be frame buildings to resist the shocks of earthquakes; otherwise the roof might fall in and kill the horses. [I shall?] notify the General Commanding this Department accordingly.

Guard

The guard here is six strong and one non-commissioned officer. One sentinel is placed at the stables, and one at the guard house, which is a small wooden building. There is also a small wooden building along side of it to match, for a prison house in which there are 3 cells. There were 10 prisoners—7 undergoing sentences—3 waiting sentence—one minor offence. A new guard house has been mostly built of abodies as indicated on the plan, but not quite finished. It is my judgment too far off, but the work on it has been suspended. The present guard house I think preferable of the two.

Adjutant’s Office, Post Records, Band

The adjutant’s office is a good adoby building, shingled, and the records neatly kept by the Sergeant Major under Lieut. Ogle, the Adjutant of the post. The Band is quartered in the same building with a suitable kitchen and “      room.” The instruments and ordnance of the Band is in good order and state of preservation. Pertaining to the Band there are 21 Sharps carbines, 16 musketoons, ten Colts pistols, 8 holster pistols, 17 artillery sabres.

Asst. Surgeon Ten Broeck is the post Treasurer and has in his hands 15.25 dolls.

Temporarily attached to this post private Egene Lohn waiting opportunity to join his company at Fort Buchanan and private John A. Fulmer waiting result of trial.

Hospital

At the time of my arrival at this post Assist. Surgeon Ten Broeck was absent temporarily with Lt. Co. Beall in Los Angeles, since the 16th Feb, and returned on the evening of the 23rd, and I went thru the hospital a second time with him. There were but two sick in the hospital, one a recruit subject to fits and unable to do duty. There was a temporary Steward and one cook and attendant–A dispensary and a ward room, with several vacant rooms, and ample for the post.—No iron bedsteads—Supplies ample and nothing wanted—The records are well-kept—The building the north east and of a large aboby building shingled. The south west end being occupied by the Commissary. I regard this post as healthy.

Commissary Department

1st Lieut. H. B. Davidson of the 1st Dragoons has been acting commissary of subsistence since the 1st January 1859. His supplies are received from San Francisco, and ample and good for six months on hand, and were stored in a good adoby building shingled. This office is in the same building, and the sergeant major of the Regiment is his acting clerk, and one extra duty man as butcher              .  His beef cattle are selected at 30 dolls. No head to weight less than 400 pounds, and he pays 6 dolls. the head for mutton. His accounts and records are all properly kept. He was absent in Los Angeles on duty on my arrival, but returned on the 24th Feb. His returns for January are all ready to be forwarded and his accounts show a balance due to the U.S. on the 30th Jan. of 977.18 dolls; and expended since 233.69 dolls. and due the U.S. at date 745.49 dolls., which is in cash. The duty appears to be well performed. I condemned small articles of property to be dropped.

Quartermaster Department

1st Lieut. Davidson is also acting assistant quartermaster since the 1st January 1859.  The supplies of the Department seem to be ample, except in the items of clothing, horseshoes, and long forage.  Barley is had at 4-l/2 to 5 ½ the lb, and corn at 4 cents the lb. Hay at 40 dolls. the ton, when it is practicable to obtain it at all. Wood is cut by prisoners, and details, close at hand. The supplies generally come via Los Angeles. The sergeant major of the Regiment is his clerk, and 14 extra duty men at repairs.

One citizen putting up a power sawmill @ 100 dolls. and a ration, and one herder @ 60 dolls. and a ration. The saw mill has recently been brought down from the mountains, and is now being put up at the post, and the logs must be hauled to it, a good arrangement. He keeps 17 horses, 46 mules, 6 oxen, and has on his return 37 wagons, 2 ambulances, one mule cart. I condemned to be sold 16 irreparable wagons, and a large quantity of old harness tools that were worn out.

The monthly return for January has been forwarded. At the close of January there was due the U.S. 152.11 dolls. received since 10,000 dolls.; and expended since 1763.27 dolls.; leaving a balance due the U.S., on the 24th February, of 8389,34 dolls.; of which, there is the Department of Treasury at San Francisco 5859.13 dolls. , and 2530 dolls. in cash in a safe. The duties are well performed by Lieut. Davidson.

Payment of Troops

This post was last paid by Paymaster Ringgold to the 31st December 1858. They are generally paid from 2 to 4 months at a time. The paymaster has been here personally but 4 times in 2 years. The sutler sometimes pays for him. I regard this as a bad practice. Private Samuel S. Chaffee, a discharged soldier of K Company, has been waiting at San Bernanrdino for 6 months for his pay; and discharged soldiers have been payed off in San Francisco in consequence of no money here; all the result of public money for private purposes by a paymaster as I have never before reported.

Drills and Target Practice

On the 22d ulto Companies K & B were reviewed and inspected.  After which they were resolved into a squadron. I put Maj. Carlegton in command, in the absence of Lt. Cio. Beall at Los Angeles; and the following named officers to wit, Capt. J. W. Davidson, 1st Lieut. C. U. Ogle, 2d Lieut. B.F. Davis, each in succession took the squadron through the various movements and the sabre exercise with the exception of the charge, which, with little practice they had it was deemed advisable not to attempt, and finally Major Carleton drilled the squadron as skirmishers both as mounted and dismounted. The squadron was broken up, and each company fired at the targets 6’ x 22” mounted, with Sharps carbine at 100 yards, and Company K made X 1/3 hits and Company B 8 1/9 hits. They then fired at the same target 20 yards with Colts pistols and mounted, and Company K made X ½ hits and Company B 8 1/3 hits, and the exercises of the day were quite interesting. On the 23rd both Companies fired at the same target with Sharps carbines, on foot, at 100 yards; Company K made X ½ hits; at 200 yards x ½ hits; with Colts pistols at 30 yds. 2 ½ hits. Company B at the same distances made X ½ and x ½ and x 1/3 hits. The men fired at will. The reason that Company K made only 12 hits at 200 yds. Was in consequence of some of the cartridges of that Company not being made with sufficient powder for Sharps rifles, and not cutting off [in the breech]; some of them hung fire. It appears that one box of cartridges, sent by Capt. Callender of Ordnance from Benecia for Sharps carbine were small at the sacrifice of            in the use of fire arms, and, I shall write him accordingly to guard against experiments in an arm already          for certain ranges.

On the whole the military exercises were conducted by Major Carleton, and indicate a better state of military instruction and target firing in our service can be had if the rank and fire are properly instructed. These Companies have been practicing at the targets prepatory to taking the field on the Mojave River, and Major Carleton on the day of my arrival, paid three premiums out of company fund for the 3 best shots.

Sutler

Geo. Alexander is the sutler and is established as marked down on the plan of the post.

Indians

I visited the Agency on the reservation 20 miles from here, in the Tulare Valley, on the 28ulto and 1 March. There are about 1,000 Indians on the reserve, and about ten “Rancherias”. They have made some progress in civilization since I was here in 1854, but have lessoned in numbers. There are now many of them who live in permanent houses nof adobies, with chimineys;-plant a few acres of land—raise most kinds of vegetables—keep fowls, hogs, cattle, horse and will soon have peaches and other fruit. The wild grape grows abundantly.

The Agent, James Vineyard, was absent in Washington City. His wife and family were here, and I noticed some Indian squaws who used the needle and thread very well, and dressed as other women. There is no danger of these Indians making war on the white people, and I regard them as perfectly peaceable and well disposed. There are no wild Indians here.

I am Very Respectfully,

Your obt. St.

Jos. K. F. Mansfield

Col. And Inspector Gen’l

U.S.A.

Fort Tejon Muster Roll complied by George Stammerjohan

Muster Roll for Headquarters, Non-Commissioned Staff and Band,

Regimental Headquarters, 28 February, 1859

Colonel Thomas F. Fauntleroy           On leave for 6 Months

Lieut. Colonel Benjamin L. Beall     Comdg. Regt. & Post, Fort Tejon

Major George A. H. Blake                On Leave since January 17, 1859

Major Enoch Steen                           Absent sick since May 17, 1858

1st Lt. Charles H. Ogle                     Regt. Adjutant, Fort Tejon

1st Lt. Henry B. Davidson               Regt. Quartermaster, Fort Tejon

Headquarters Non-Commissioned Staff Enlisted                    At:

Sergt. Major Damuel R. I Sturgeon             May 25, 1855           Fort Reading, Ca. (re-enlistment)

Ordnance Sergt. Jone E. Kelly(a)                 May 31, 1856          Fort Orford (re-enlistment)

Regt. QM Sergt. William Duffy (a)              December 1, 1858   Fort Tejon (re-enlistment)

Chief Bugler Carl Caib                                   June 3, 1858            Nr. Los Angeles (re-enlisted)

Regimental Band

Bergman, Jacob                                              August 11, 1858       San Francisco

Burke, Patrick                                                 June 6, 1854            New York

Chatland, Edwin                                            February 2, 1855   Baltimore

Clarke, Charles                                              April 1856                Fort Union, N.M.

Ferrari, Giaciento                                         October 12, 1856     Philadelphia

Roesch, William                                            June 10, 1857          Fort Tejon

Stark, Dominick                                            September 1, 1858 Fort Tejon

Sugden, Reuben                                            October 1, 1858       Fort Tejon

Tierney, Edmund P.                                     December 7, 1858   San Francisco

No Buglers

Oliver, Francis, Farrier                                 Feb. 12 ’55                Ft. Filmore, N.M.

a. On furlough, each for six months.

Muster Roll for Company B

John W. Davidson, Captain, Commanding Company

Orren Chapman, 1st Lieut., Died at St.Louis 7 Jan. 1859

Benjamin F. Davis, 2d Lieut., with company for duty

The Company                                Enlisted:                                    At:

1st Sgt. Nathanial J. Pishon            August 13, ’56                                 Ft. Craig, N.M.

*Sgt. Minor C. Tuttle                       Aug. 26, ’56                                      Ft. Craig, N.M.

*Sgt. Jmes W. Strawbridge           July 18, ’58                                        Ft. Tejon

Sgt. Joseph E. Smith                      Feb. 1, ’55                                           Cleveland, Oh.

Corp. Michael Wheatley              May 4, ’55                                           New York City

*Corp. Frederick Fischer             Aug. 20, ’57                                        Ft. Buchanan, NMT

Corp. James McGuire                  Apr. 12, ’54                                         New York City

Corp.  John Yaiser                        Feb 15, ’56                                          Ft. Fillmore, NMT

No buglers

Frances Oliver, Farrier                 Feb. 12, ’55                                         Ft. Fillmore, NMT

Privates

Allen, Robert B.                                              Feb. 24, ’56              Ft. Filmore, N.M.

Arnold, John                                                   Sept.9, ’57                 Baltimore

Barnard, William                                           Nov. 16, ’57               Boston

Brunning, Heinrich                                       May 23, ’54               New York City

Butler, James                                                  May 19, ’54               New York, City

Beecher, George D.                                        Sept. 3, ’57               Harrisburg, Pa.

Betts, William                                                 June 1, ’54                New York City

**Buck, James                                                Jan. 2, ’56                Ft. Fillmore, NM

Bresler, John                                                  Oct. 15, ’58               San Francisco

Cantrell, James                                              Oct. 28, ’57               New York City

Carr, Joseph                                                   June 20, ’54             New York City

Carpenter, Asa                                              Aug 29, ’57                Boston, Mass.

Connolly, Patrick                                         June 21, ’54               New York

Coakley, Charles R.                                     June 12 ’54                Baltimore

Cowan, William                                           Dec. 20 ’54                Nashville, Tenn.

Culligan, Michael                                        April 19, ’55              Ft. Fillmore, NM

Chariasis, Michael                                      August 24, ’57           New York

Dean, James                                                Oct. 26, ’57                 New York

Dowd, John                                                 Aug. 26, ’55                Ft. Union, N.M.

Eldar, Adam                                                Aug. 22, ’55                Ft. Fillmore, N.M.

Faber, Henry                                               Apr. 17, ’54                 New York

Forest, Joseph Y.                                       Aug. 18, ’54                 Ft. Union, N.M.

Fogerty, John                                            March 23, ’55              Louisville, Ky.

Galleger, John                                          Feb. 15, ’56                   Ft. Fillmore, NM

*Hand, John                                             Sept. 9, ’54                  Ft Union, NM

Hade, Patrick                                           Dec. 1 ’57                      Ft. Buchanan, NM

Kriesalmayer, Henry                              Sept. 11 ’57                   Philadelphia

*** Lohmeyer, Frederick                      Dec 5 ’55                       Albuquerque, NM

* Maher, Edward                                    Feb. 1, ’56                     Ft. Thorn, NM

Miller, Henry                                           May 20, ’54                 New York City

Morrissey, John                                      June 8, ’54                  New York

* McCoy, Thomas                                   July 15 ’58                   Ft. Tejon

Moulton, Harrison                                 Sept. 8 ’57                   Philadelphia

****O’Meara, Edward                           Jan. 8 ’55                    Ft. Fillmore, NM

Ott, Heinrich                                          September 3, ’57        New York

Pryor, Robert                                         March 9 ’54                 New York

Phillip, George                                       Sept. 11 ’58                  San Francisco

Reynolds, William R.                           June 26, ’54                 New York City

Ross, James                                           Oct. 19, ’57                   Boston

Swiss, Henry                                         Feb. 23, ’53                   St. Louis

Scherrer, John E.                                 Sept. 27, ’53                  New York

Scharf, Anton                                        Mar. 16, ’53                  Ft. Fillmore, NM

Schafle, Francis P.                               Nov. 6, ’58                     San Francisco

Thomson, Theodore                            Sept 11, ’55                    Ft. Stanton, NM

Tower, John S.                                     Sept. 5, ’57                     Boston

Trouton, William                                 Aug. 24, ’57                   Philadelphia

Taylor, James                                       Jan. 25, ’59                   Fort Tejon

West, John A.                                       June 10, ’58                  Baltimore

Washington, George H.                     April 21 ’58                   San Francisco

*$2.00 additional each month for former service.

** $3.00 a month for 2d reenlistment

***German born Frederick Lohmeyer, enlisted, at age 24 years, in Company B at St Louis on April 19, 1847, discharged at Santa Fe on August 19, 1848.

****Edward O’Meara, former farrier of Co. F, who was court martialed for his participation in the 1855 riot in the Taos Plaza, see infra, was transferred to Co. B. Pvt. O’Meara was confined in the post jail at the time of this muster along with privates Beecher, Forest, Morrisey, Pryor and Washington.

Pvt. Miller – absent, sick Ft. Fillmore, since Oct. 16, ’55.

Pvts. Faber and Phillip, sick in post hospital.

Company K

James H. Carleton. Captain and Brevet Major, Comanding Company

David H. Hastings, 1st Lieut., Leave of Absence

Alfred B. Chapman, 2d Lieut.; Returned from detached duty of February 28, 1859, present for duty.

The Company:                                Enlisted:                                     At:

*William McCleave, 1st Sgt.         1 Oct ’55                                     Albuquerque, NM

*Sgt. Emil Fritz                               1 Jan. ’56                                   Albuquerque, NM

*Sgt. Gustav Brown                       1 Dec. ’57                                    Ft. Buchanan, NM

Sgt.  Thomas Yearwood                1 Apr. ’57                                    Calabaza, NM

Frederick Morris, Corp.                2 Sept. ’57                                  Ft. Buchanan, NM

Andrew J. Landers, Corp.            5 Feb. ’55                                    Knoxville, Tenn.

* Joseph Meyer, Bugler                12 Feb. ’56                                   Ft. Buchanan, NM

John W. Harris, Bugler                11 Dec. ’56                                   Albany, NY

*William Seyring, Farrier              1 Aug ’55                                    Albuquerque, NM

Privates

Batty, James  @                             18 Sept. ’55                                Albuquerque, NM

Buell, Sylvester                               5 Sept.   ’57                               Boston

Brannan, Michael                          7 Feb.   ’55                                Jefferson Battacks, Mo.

Cannon, Mchael                             7 Sept. ’57                                 New York

Crowley, Timothy                         15 Feb. ’55                                 Albuquerque, NM

Caskey, Samuel                             21 Oct. ’55                                 Albuquerque, NM

Creevy, William                              8 Oct. ’56                                Albuquerque, NM

Costellow, Thomas                       15 Mar. ’55                               Albuquerque, NM

Corringham, Thomas                    2 Feb. ’55                                Cleveland

Ennis, Thomas                               14 Jan. ’55                              Cincinnati

**Fitzsimmons, Thomas                23 Nov. ’55                            Albuquerque, NM

Fitzpatrick, John                             3 Sept. ’55                            Albuquerque, NM

Friedberg, Francis                           3 Aug. ’57                            Boston

**Gray, William                               1 July ’57                             Ft. Buchanan, NM

Glendmeyer, Frederick                 10 October ’57                     Baltimore

Henn, Andrew                                 20 March ’57                       Calabasas, N.M.

Hurley, Morris                                  8 Sept. ’57                          Boston

Herring, Robert B.                         20 Oct. ’57                           New York

*Johnson, Adam                             27 Dec. ’55                         Albuquerque, NM

Jones, Robert H.                              7 Feb. ’55                          Knoxville, Tenn.

Louish, James                                  17 Jan. ’56                         New York

*Maroon, Harvey                            21 Sept. ’57                        Ft. Buchanan, NM

* Mahan, Thomas                            28 Jan, ’56                        Albuquerque, NM

McNeal, Erastus                               20 Jan. ’55                       Columbus, Ohio

McDonald, John                              18 Aug. ’57                        Boston

Moore, Michael                                16 Nov. ’57                        Philadephia

Moody, Thomas                                20 Nov. ’57                       New York

Murphy, Hugh                                    4 Nov. ’57                        New York

Mullins, James                                   3 Nov. ’57                        Boston

Miller, Ebenezar                                7 Sept. ’57                        New York

*O’Carroll, John A.                          27 May ’58                        Ft. Yuma (Calif.)

Ogilivie, Henry                                  9 Sept. ’57                         New York

Papp, Frederick                                 9 Nov. ’57                         Richmond, Va.

*Quatman, Herman                         15 Nov. ’55                        Albuquerque, NM

Reinhart, Antony                             26 Aug, ’57                        New York

Richey, Hamilton                            26 Oct. ’57                         Philadelphia

Smythe, Henry                                17 Aug. ’57                         New Yrok

Smith, Abraham B,                        26 Oct. ’56                         San Francisco

Schaupp, Charles                            11 Nov. ’57                        New York

Tynon, Michael                                8 Feb. ’55                         St. Louis

Terrell, Rufus H.                             1 Sept. ’57                        Philadelphia

Taylor, Daniel                                 8 Oct. ’57                         New York

Thompson, James                        10 Oct. ’57                         New York

Tooney, Peter                                15 Oct. ’58                        San Francisco

Van Riper, Cornelius                   15 Feb. ’59                       Ft. Tejon

Zabel, Gustavus                             1 Aug ’55                         Albuquerque

* $2.00 a month as former service.

Deserted: Henry Tolman, enlisted 29 Oct. ’59 in Boston.

Confined in post jail: Buell, Johnson, Smythe, and Taylor.

Private John A. Fulton (aka Jacob Fulmer), was dropped from regimental rolls on 20 February 1859, as a deserter from Company H, 1st US Cavalry, Kansas Territory and dismissed from the service on 25 February 1859.

A LETTER FROM HEADQUARTERS: New Horse Equipage and Seeing the Elephant, 1846

On August 18, 1846, Company B of the 1st United States Dragoons participated in the bloodless conquest of Santa Fe.  Brig. General Stephen W. Kearny, with orders to proceed to California, broke up Company B and transferred most of its enlisted men and mounts to the other four companies of Dragoons and headed west.  Lt. John Love, now in field command of Company B, was ordered to return East to gather recruits.

While Lt. Love was slowly gaining recruits for Company B in Ohio and Indiana, he received the following letter from Lt. Henry Stanton, the regimental adjutant.    The letter is significant in two regards.  First, it reveals that the new Grimsley horse equipage was being widely issued, prior to its official adoption by the Army board in 1848.   Second, the letter tells of a November 12, 1846, running battle between elements of the 1st Dragoons and the Navajo.  Although the Dragoons had patrolled the plains since 1833, this encounter was the first reported skirmish between the Dragoons and Native Americans and occurred nearly a month prior to the bloody clash between Company C and Californio militia near the village of San Pascual, California.

***************************************************************************************************************************************

Ft. Leavenworth, December 24, 1846

Dear Love

I send you herewith a Regimental and General Orders, and an extract from the clothing receipt roll of Sergt. Muller  and Corpl. Nickerson,  clothing issued by Lieut. McLean.   I also send you Duplicate Receipts for Ordnance and Horse Equipage which I have directed Sergt. Bishop   to leave behind as I do not think you would want to be troubled with old equipage and ordnance at Jefferson Barracks, when you will probably get an entire New Equipment for your Company.
If you should want any horse equipage I have receipted for a good deal of New Equipage that was sent on for the different Dragoon Companies, and which has never been used, and if you are not able to equip you Company entirely at St. Louis, I may be able to help you. Colonel Wharton   has at last indirectly applied to join the Army in the field, he will probably get an answer before the middle of next month. We got a mail from Santa Fe a day or two ago. Grier  had a fight with the Indians,   it seems they have runned [sic] off some cattle, Grier followed them, but owing to the bad condition of the mules of his party, only himself, Lieut. Wilson  and two men were able to come up with the Indians; they killed two of the Indians and Grier’s horse or mule whatever it was, shot [out from] under him. The Dragoons under Burgwin  have been ordered to the Passo [El Paso] to protect the traders.   He writes very despondently, says, if his men were only Dragoons he might do something. I hope that Colonel Wharton joins [Generals] Scott or Taylor that he will [have] some more Companies of the 1st Dragoons down with him. If he could get four or five Companies it would be a very pretty command. How are you getting along at Dayton. Did the Girls give you a warm welcome? I was not able to send you a copy of your estimate for clothing because by some mistake it was sent off without a copy being attached. If there should by any possibility be any thing new here, I will [sic] let you know.
Yours Truly
Stanton

**************************************************************************************************************************************

An account of Lt. Grier’s battle with the Navajos appears in Lt. Col. W.H.

Emory, Notes of a Military Reconnaissance, Ex. Doc. Mo. 41, Washington

Military Reconnaissance, Ex. Doc. No. 41, 1848, Report of Lt. J. W. Abert, 498.

“So warm and exciting was the chase, that the officers, who were well

mounted, heeded not the want of their men who were unable to keep pace

with them, but they pressed on, anxious to recover the immense “cavalgada”

of sheep the Indians were yet driving.

Suddenly they saw they had rushed into an ambuscade, for the Indians

rising up from their concealment surrounded Captain Grier and his three

brave companions. With horrid cries and shouts of “Navajoe,” the

Indians sprang forward to the combat; they were dressed for war, being

ornamented with paints and plumes, and mounted on good horses, and

armed with bows and arrows, and lances; but, fortunately, they were so

crowded that they feared lest they shoot each other. At length, one of

the chiefs came alongside of Lieutenant Wilson; their horses were on

the gallop, each one waiting until the horses should jump together,

when, at the same moment, Lieutenant Wilson and the Indian fired; the

officer’s pistol did not go off, and the arrow of the chief only cut

off a coat button, and lodged in the saddle blanket of Captain Grier.

As the Indian turned his horse, a Mexican, who had started at full

speed, came in contact with him, and rolled horse and rider in the

dust; the Indian was immediately upon his feet, and rushed up to a

dragoon soldier, who had a patent [Hall’s] carbine, such as loaded at

the breach, and had, unseen by the Indian, reloaded it, and the Indian

coming up within two or three feet, the soldier shot him dead. One

other Indian was killed, when Captain Grier ordered a retreat, and the

four, drawing their sabres, cut their way out and rejoined their

company, while the Navajoes succeeded in carrying off 3,000 head of

sheep.”

Thanks to the efforts of Tim Kimball,here is more on Burgwin from Stanton via the Missouri Republican, December 29, 1846

stanton (presumably) to editor, missouri republican:

Fort Leavenworth December 21, 1846.

Dear Sirs: I send you for your disposal the following items of intelligence, this day received by express from Santa Fe. An officer of the medical department [[either De Camp or Simpson]] of the army writes to this effect, under date of the 9 th of Nov., from Santa Fe:
“Capt. Grier and Lieut. Wilson, with two soldiers , (of the first dragoons,) pursued and overtook a large party of Navajos and killed two of them, recapturing at the same time a flock of sheep. The rest of the company being mounted on poor mules, could not overtake the Indians. The captain’s horse was wounded – no other damage done.”
An officer of the 1st dragoons [[clearly Burgwin]], writing from Albuquerque, under date of the 25 th of October, says to his correspondent [[who HAS to be Stanton]]:
“tomorrow I start on an expedition to the south. I have (at Albuquerque) a solitary [[garbled–best guess]] squadron of 175 men. I would feel perfectly satisfied with my situation, were not my command so truly ineffectual [[this is a complaint about the squadron being mounted on the worst of the dragoons’ mules, not about the quality of his dragoons– and soon this, the squadron was completely dismounted]]. All our horses, you know, have been sent to Missouri, under the belief that they could not sustain the fatigues, and no forage, of the march to California. When the detachment for the march was finally made up at Socorro, all of the really serviceable mules were selected for it, out of the companies that were to remain in this country – so that now I have not only for my mounts, but for my teams, the sorriest lot of animals that were ever seen. I had the greatest difficulty in performing the march back to this place, and now find myself with scarce the ability to move from it. I received today a call upon me, which demands prompt attention, and which requires the exertions of my utmost ability. After pacification of the country, the Chihuahua traders continued their journey towards the south, in order that they might avail themselves of the operations of General Wool’s army, for the entrance of their goods into California.
“It seems that some had trusted too far to the peaceful professions of the Mexicans. They have all halted about one hundred and fifty miles from here, and having good reasons, they say, to believe that the Mexicans from the settlements of El Passo, design making the attack on them, for plunder, have written up for troops to protect them. The value of their property is estimated at a half million of dollars. Although these traders have by their own imprudence placed themselves in this danger, yet the protection of so many American lives, and of so large an amount of American property, is a matter of great importance; and I feel it incumbent on me, feeble and small as is my force, to make an effort to accomplish it. What would I not give to have with me a squadron of dragoons! [[again, a complaint about mounts, not soldiers]] Since receiving the letter from the traders, I have received letters from Gov. Bent, the intelligence communicated in which tends to confirm the impression that there is a very general feeling of discontent existing among the people of the province, and that efforts have been made to get up an opposition towards us, the first development of which is to be an attack on the traders below. It is said that a force of one thousand men has been assembled at El Passo del Norte, to act in concert with the people above in this business. If this should be, or could out approach for the protection of the traders by unknown to them, we may yet have the satisfaction and enjoyment of a battle with these people. Of the fatigues and hardships of a quasi war the 1st dragoons have had enough, but we cannot boast the honor of having been in a stricken field.
“Gen. Kearney, in making his arrangements for his expedition to California, under the impression that troops enough for the maintenance of the American supremacy in this country were on their way here and would soon arrive, gave orders that Col. Doniphn’s regiment should proceed by El Passo to join Gen. Wool’s army en route to Chihuahua. I have just learned that Doniphan left Santa Fe yesterday en route to El Passo. We are much concerned at the prospect of starvation amongst us before spring. The supply of provisions is far short of the demand and that to be drawn from the country is far short of the supposed deficiency.”

burgwin

Henry Stanton would serve as regimental adjutant at Fort Leavenworth and Jefferson Barracks until 1851.  Gaining a Captain’s commission in 1854, he was placed in command of John Love’s old Company B.   In January of 1855, Company B took part in an expedition against the Mescalero Apache, south of Sierra Blanca in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico Territory.    Captain Stanton forgot all about Captain Grier’s near fatal mistake of riding too far in advance of his support.  While rashly leading a small detachment in pursuit of a fleeing band of Mescaleros, Captain Stanton and three troopers were ambushed and killed.

For further information on the refitting of Company B, see Gorenfeld, Jefferson Barracks, 1847: I’m Disgusted with the Duty, Military Collector & Historian, Winter 2003-2004, Vol. 55, No. 4, 211.  John Love graduated from the Military Academy in 1841 and was promoted to the rank of 2d Lieut. in the 1st Dragoons in 1842, and 1st Lieut. on June 30, 1846. (George W. Cullum. Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U. S. Military Academy (New York, J. F. Trow, 1850) 241 (hereafter cited as Cullum)
Born in New York, Henry W. Stanton graduated from the Military Academy in 1842 and became a 2d lieut. in the 1st Dragoons on October 8, 1844.  In 1846, he was serving at Fort Leavenworth as regimental adjutant. (Cullum, 253.)
In 1846, the Ringgold saddle was the official saddle for the mounted arm.  It was not until March 7, 1848, that an Army board approved the Grimsley saddle as the official pattern. (Stephen Dorsey & Kenneth McPheeters, The American Military Saddle 1776-1945 (Collectors—™ Library, Eugene, Ore. 1999), 20.
The original of this letter may be found at the Indiana Historical Society in Indianapolis.  The author wises to express his deep appreciation to Mrs. Besty Caldwell for making a copy of this letter available.
German-born First Sergeant Frederick Muller had been with the Dragoons since 1834.  He was thirty-five years of age and was six foot-one inch in height.  Lt. Love wrote of Muller that, —œwhether in battle, in camp, or on the march, he is energetic and soldierly; never in one instance have I known him to neglect his duty.— Sergeant Muller donned the scarlet trimmed jacket of an Ordnance Sergeant. He served in this capacity until his death in 1861 at Fort Wood in New York harbor. (Report of John Love, House Ex. Docs., 30 Cong., 1 sess., No. 1, 120.; (War Department Files, National Archives, Lt. John Love’s Company B, Muster Roll Records, 28 February to 30 April, 1847. (Hereafter, Muster Roll)..
Trooper John F. Nickerson enlisted in the 1st Dragoons in 1841.  Promoted to the rank of corporal in June of 1847, on February 6, 1848, he received a surgeon—™s discharge.  (Muster Roll, Company B, 1 January to 28 February, 1848.).
2d Lt. Eugene Eckel McLean, 1st Infantry, graduated from the Military Academy in 1842.  During the Mexican War he served as Aide de Camp to General John Wool. (Cullum, 253)
Sergeant Benjamin Bishop had served with the Dragoons since 1834. Sergeant Bishop was discharged in 1849 and gained employment at Fort Leavenworth as a civilian forage master for the army. (Percival Lowe. Five Years a Dragoon (Norman, Okla. Univ. Oklahoma Press), 82-83, 242; Muster Roll, Company B,  29 February to 30 April, 1847.)
Lt. Col. Clifton Wharton. 1st Dragoons (Heitman, 1022).
Capt. William N. Grier, 1st Dragoons, graduated from the Military Academy in 1835, was promoted to Captain on August 23, 1846 and commanded Company I. (Cullum, 205.)
A detailed account appears in Lt. Col. W.H. Emory, Notes of a Military Reconnaissance, Ex. Doc. No. 41, Washington, 1848, Report of Lt. J. W. Abert, 498. —œSo warm and exciting was the chase, that the officers, who were well mounted, heeded not the want of their men who were unable to keep pace with them, but they pressed on, anxious to recover the immense “cavalgada” of sheep the Indians were yet driving. Suddenly they saw they had rushed into an ambuscade, for the Indians rising up from their concealment surrounded Captain Grier and his three brave companions. With horrid cries and shouts of “Navajoe,” the Indians sprang forward to the combat; they were dressed for war, being ornamented with paints and plumes, and mounted on good horses, and armed with bows and arrows, and lances; but, fortunately, they were so crowded that they feared lest they shoot each other. At length, one of the chiefs came alongside of Lieutenant Wilson; their horses were on the gallop, each one waiting until the horses should jump together, when, at the same moment, Lieutenant Wilson and the Indian fired; the officer’s pistol did not go off, and the arrow of the chief only cut off a coat button, and lodged in the saddle blanket of Captain Grier. As the Indian turned his horse, a Mexican, who had started at full speed, came in contact with him, and rolled horse and rider in the dust; the Indian was immediately upon his feet, and rushed up to a dragoon soldier, who had a patent [Hall—™s] carbine, such as loaded at the breach, and had, unseen by the Indian, reloaded it, and the Indian coming up within two or three feet, the soldier shot him dead. One other Indian was killed, when Captain Grier ordered a retreat, and the four, drawing their sabres, cut their way out and rejoined their company, while the Navajoes succeeded in carrying off 3,000 head of sheep.”

____________________________
2d Lt. Clarendon J. L. Wilson, 1st Dragoons, graduated from the Military Academy in 1846 and was serving as a brevet 2d Lt at the time of the battle. (Cullum, 271.)
Capt. John Henry K. Burgwin, 1st Dragoons. Graduated from the Military Academy in 1830 and was promoted to Captain on July 31, 1837, and commanded Company G.  Captain Burgwin was mortally wounded during the Taos insurrection and died of wounds on February 7, 1847. (Cullum, 163.)
During the most of Mexican War, there was lively trade between American merchants in Santa Fe and Mexican merchants in Chihuahua. (See generally, Edward James Glasgow and William Henry Glasgow, Brothers on the Santa Fe and Chihuahua Trails, edited by Mark L. Gardner (Niwest, Colo, Univ. Colorado Press 1993).
Francis Heitman, Historical Register of the United States Army (Washington D.C. GPO 1903) 1:916; LTC Miles to General Garland November 18, 1854 (National Archives Microfilm Publication, Washington, D.C.) M1120, roll 3,
Capt. Richard Ewell to Lt. William Nichols, 10 February 1855, Letters Received, Department of New Mexico, Record Group 393, Microfilm 1120, Roll 4, National Archives.
; James A. Bennett, Fort & Forays, edited by Clinton E. Brooks & Frank Reeve (Univ. New Mexico, Albuquerque, 1996), xxviii-xxix.  James Bennett, a sergeant with Company I, described the battle and Stanton—™s death as follows: —œThe main body of troops moved up the stream and small parties of Dragoons kept charging out after parties of Indians.  A running fight was kept up until 4 o—™clock, when we encamped.  Captain Stanton with 12 men rushed up a deep ravine.  The Indians in ambush fired upon him, a ball passed through his forehead.— (Bennett, 60.)  In Captain Richard Ewell—™s official account of the battle, he states: —œAbout 3 PM on the 18th of Jan [1855], I came to the first of their abandoned camps where my command was halted for the night and Captain Stanton was directed to take his company, with some additional men and examine a small open valley to the right where were some more abandoned lodges, about 500 yards distant, and endeavor to find the direction taken by the Indians when they left.  This officer, after reaching the place designated, charged after some Indians he saw in front and in following up the steep hillside in the ardor of the chase, became separated from some of his men, badly mounted, who were unable to join him when he sounded the rally.  After rallying about a dozen men he proceeded up the valley until he became satisfied that the Indians had not retreated in that direction, then he started back, leading his horses.  About three-fourths of a mile form the camp the valley narrowed with trees, and here he was ambushed and fired into, the first fire killing one of his men.  He ordered his party to take to the trees, but the Indians being in too great force, he mounted and ordered his party to retreat, remaining in the rear himself, firing his Sharps carbine, when he received a shot in the head and was instantly killed.— (Ewell to Nicolls, Letters Received, Dept of NM.)

6th November, 1846, Santa Fe

And from Gilmer Lenoir, a member of the Missouri Volunteers, is this letter concerning the same event:

My Dear Welcker [Gilmer’s cousin George, a Captain in Washington at the Fortification Engineers Bureau],

—œThe small body of Regulars, about 200 strong, that are stationed near Albuquerque, 120 [sic, 65– tho Gilmer is giving the distance to Lemitar, where the following event took place] miles south of this, marched down the Rio Grande some three weeks ago towards the Paso del Norte, for the purpose of protecting the  traders going from Santa Fé to Chihuahua.  It is almost impossible to subsist horses in this country so late in the season and for this reason the Reglrs were mounted on mules—”not a very fierce animal, by the bye, on a charge.  When they had arrived in the vicinity of Tomé [pronounced Toma] a body of Navajo Indians were discovered in the act of driving off a large flock of sheep belonging to the Spaniards—”the latter in pursuit, but afraid to approach with the range of the Indian arrows.  Capt. Burgwin detached 60 men and Capt. Grier in pursuit, but spurs, whips, kicks, and curses could bring nothing more than a high trot out of the war studs on which they were mounted—”the sheep and the Indians were about to distance the mules, when Capt. G., Lieut. Wilson, a sergeant and one private who were mounted on horses, dashed ahead and charged in the midst of about fifty Indians.  Grier and Wilson—™s pistols missed fire, having been loaded for  several days.  The Sergeant and private each killed his man, to which the enemy took fright and scampered off like so many wild turkies [sic], leaving their booty in the possession of Capt. Grier and his men.  The Sheep were driven back and delivered to the Spaniards who owned them.  After this affair, Capt. Burgwin continued his march to the south.  From the best intelligence which we have been able to obtain from that directions since, it is more than probable that Capt. B. will find no enemy north of El Paso, beyond which he will not advance; but, in the course of 12 or 15 days, he will return to his station near Albuquerque.—

Lenoir Family Papers, #2262, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Courtesy of Tim Kimball.